Title

Chitosan based adsorbents for the removal of phosphate and nitrate: A critical review

Document Type

Article

Abstract

The tremendous development in the industrial sector leads to discharging of the several types of effluents containing detrimental contaminants into water sources. Lately, the proliferation of toxic anions particularly phosphates and nitrates onto aquatic systems certainly depreciates the ecological system and causes a deadly serious problem. Chitosan (Cs) is one of the most auspicious biopolymer adsorbents that are being daily developed for removing of various contaminants from polluted water. This is due to its unparalleled benefits involving biocompatibility, non-toxicity, facile modifications and low-cost production. Nevertheless, chitosan displays considerable drawbacks including low adsorption capacity, low surface area and lack of reusability. Therefore, few findings have been established regarding the aptitude of modified chitosan-based adsorbents towards phosphate and nitrate anions. This review elaborates an overview for the current advances of modified chitosan based-adsorbent for phosphate and nitrate removal, in specific multivalent metals-modified chitosan, clays and zeolite-modified chitosan, magnetic chitosan and carbon materials-modified chitosan. The efforts that have been executed for enriching their adsorption characteristics as well as their possible adsorption mechanisms and reusability were well addressed. Besides, the research conclusions for the optimum adsorption conditions were also discussed, along with emphasizing the foremost research gaps and future potential trends that could motivate further research and innovation to find best solutions for water treatment problems facing the world.

Publication Date

11-15-2021

Faculty

Faculty of Applied Health Sciences Technology

Subject Area

Physical Sciences, General Materials Science, General Chemistry

Indexed in Scopus

yes

Indexed in Web Of Science

yes

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118671

Volume

274

Keywords

Adsorption, Chitosan, Mechanism, Nitrate, Phosphate, Reusability

ISSN

01448617

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