Title

Does physical exercise improve or deteriorate treatment of multiple sclerosis with mitoxantrone? Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis study in rats

Document Type

Article

Abstract

Background: Mitoxantrone has proved efficacy in treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The fact that physical exercise could slow down the progression of disease and improve performance is still a debatable issue, hence; we aimed at studying whether combining mitoxantrone with exercise is of value in the management of MS. Methods: Thirty-six male rats were divided into sedentary and exercised groups. During a 14-day habituation period rats were subjected to exercise training on a rotarod (30 min/day) before Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) induction and thereafter for 17 consecutive days. On day 13 after induction, EAE groups (exercised &sedentary) were divided into untreated and mitoxantrone treated ones. Disease development was evaluated by motor performance and EAE score. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was used for biochemical analysis. Brain stem and cerebellum were examined histopathological and immunohistochemically. Results: Exercise training alone did not add a significant value to the studied parameters, except for reducing Foxp3 immunoreactivity in EAE group and caspase-3 in the mitoxantrone treated group. Unexpectedly, exercise worsened the mitoxantrone effect on EAE score, Bcl2 and Bax. Mitoxantrone alone decreased EAE/demyelination/inflammation scores, Foxp3 immunoreactivity, and interleukin-6, while increased the re-myelination marker BDNF without any change in tumor necrosis factor-α. It clearly interrupted the apoptotic pathway in brain stem, but worsened EAE mediated changes of the anti-apoptotic Bcl2 and pro-apoptotic marker Bax in the CSF. Conclusions: The neuroprotective effect of mitoxantrone was related with remyelination, immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory potentials. Exercise training did not show added value to mitoxantrone, in contrast, it disrupts the apoptotic pathway.

Publication Date

12-1-2022

Faculty

Faculty of Pharmacy

Subject Area

Life Sciences, Neuroscience

Indexed in Scopus

yes

Indexed in Web Of Science

yes

DOI

https://doi.org/10.1186/s12868-022-00692-1

Volume

23

Keywords

Anti-inflammatory, Demyelination, Exercise, Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Foxp3, Mitoxantrone

eISSN

14712202

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